Notably, a randomized clinical trial investigating the effect of antibiotics on the gut microbiome diversity in Burkina Faso pre-school children also reported that the use of Azithromycin affected the composition of the intestinal microbiome . In addition to exploring these possibilities, the researchers plan to conduct studies in mice to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which diets alter the microbiome and reduce inflammatory proteins. They also aim to test whether high-fiber and fermented foods synergize to influence the microbiome and immune system of humans. Another goal is to examine whether the consumption of fermented food decreases inflammation or improves other health markers in patients with immunological and metabolic diseases, and in pregnant women and older individuals. Specific environmental and genetic factors have been linked to the development of dysbiosis, including antibiotic use, stress, geography, race, host genetics, and diet .
Dietary interventions intended to have an impact on host biology via their impact on the microbiome are being developed, and the market for these products is seeing tremendous success. However, the current regulatory framework poses challenges to industry interest and investment. All mixed models described below were run using either the lmer or glmer functions of the lme4 package . All quantitative variables (i.e., cumulative rainfall, averaged temperature, and age) were z-transformed to have a mean of zero and a standard deviation of one to facilitate model convergence. The significance of the fixed factors was tested using a likelihood ratio test, LRT (assuming an asymptotic chi-square distribution of the test statistic) via the drop1 function.
Microbial and metabolic phenotypes exhibit enterotype-specific links, emphasising the importance of enterotype stratification in investigating metabolic responses to diet . Multi-centre studies allow for the investigation of enterotypes in wider population groups. These acknowledge the influence of geographical, ethnic, and cultural influences on the microbiome and diet amongst others.
This could be an important drawback to the beneficial components provided for microbial fermentation. Complex microbiome studies cover various areas, starting from the level of complete microbial cells , followed by the DNA , RNA , protein , and metabolites . In that order, the focus of the studies shifts from the microbial potential over the metabolic potential towards microbial functioning (e.g., the discovery of the active metabolic pathways). Definition typeExamplesEcologicalDefinitions based on ecology describe the microbiome following the concepts derived from the ecology of multicellular organisms. However, many other microbiome definitions have been published in the last few decades. The currently most cited definition by Lederberg describes microbiomes within an ecological context, as a community of commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms within a body space or other environment.
Singh, R. K., Chang, H. W., Yan, D., Lee, K. M., Ucmak, D., Wong, K., … Liao, W. Influence of diet on the gut microbiome and implications for human health. The total microbiome company with products designed to address the critical roles of bacteria and fungi in gut health.
Many studies have examined his diet, health, and genetics, but recently researchers were able to discover identify and examine his stomach and intestines. Biopsy samples were collected and PCR analysis determined the presence of the gram-negative bacteria Helicobacter pylori. Corals are one of the more common examples of an animal host whose symbiosis with microalgae can turn to dysbiosis, and is visibly detected as bleaching. The gammaproteobacterium Endozoicomonas is emerging as a central member of the coral’s microbiome, with flexibility in its lifestyle.
He gut microbiome has been suggested to influence a variety of human health conditions, including autism spectrum disorder. This has led to proposals that altering the microbiome—whether by diet, probiotics, or fecal transfer—might alleviate symptoms. A study published inCelltoday , however, turns this idea on its head.
These oligosaccharides are beneficial substrates to the gut microbiota contributing to enhanced gut bacteria function, protection from pathogen infection and improved immune response. Gordon and co-workers analyzed human milk oligosaccharides from breast milk of 6-month-postpartum mothers in two independent randomized controlled clinical trials of undernourishment in Malawi . The first birth cohort study tested the efficacy of lipid-based nutrient supplements to prevent severe stunting among infants (LCNI-5 study), while the second investigated supplementing maternal and infant diet with micronutrient fortified LNS (iLiNS-DYAD-M study).
For instance, non-digestible carbohydrate diets that are rich in whole grain and wheat bran are linked to an increase in gut Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli . Other non-digestible carbohydrates, such as resistant starch and whole grain barley, appear to also increase abundance of Ruminococcus, E. Additionally, FOS-, polydextrose-, and AOS-based prebiotics have been observed to reduce Clostridium [69–72] and Enterococcus species [73–76]. A cross-sectional study of 344 patients with advanced colorectal adenomas revealed that Roseburia and Eubacterium were significantly less prevalent, while Enterococcus and Streptococcus were more prevalent in these subjects compared to healthy controls.
3—specialized on a single shrub species in the wet season (Acacia brevispica, mean RRA of 87 to 92% vs. 18% in the dry season) but consumed a more even variety of plants in the dry season . The collection of microorganisms that live in coexistence within or on the host body has been referred to as the microbiota. In humans, such cohabitation is mostly seen in the gut, mainly in the colon. The gut microbiome is acquired from the environment and is modified mostly by the diet.
Sweeteners And The Gut Microbiome
Two complementary bodies of theory suggest that understanding diet−microbiome linkages can improve our understanding of how species interactions shape communities by differentially affecting fitness and population growth. Coexistence theory emphasizes resource competition and niche differentiation within guilds , and food-web theory emphasizes trophic regulation of populations . Both frameworks can account for species-specific differences in traits such as body size, social structure, and diet selectivity that affect how individuals balance the need for resources against the risk of predation or infection . Whereas these characteristics can clearly affect fitness, the health and fitness consequences of microbiome compositions are only well established in biomedical studies on humans and model organisms .
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Clearly, for every species, and particularly kingdom animalia, the microbiome determines the species. A giraffe, an elephant, a koala, a panda, etc. these animals have a particular microbiome that is specific to that species. There is no reason to think this would be any different for a human.
I feel 100 times better eating this way and I’m looking forward to seeing other positive health benefits as I progress through this way of eating. The connection between the carnivore diet and the microbiome appears strong. There’s compelling evidence that switching to an animal food-based diet swiftly alters the composition of bacteria living in the gut.
Microbiome And Genes
Ideally, researchers could follow a meal through the gut and collect data about that meal and the microbial community changes that are induced by it. Technology that allows easier sampling throughout the gastrointestinal tract using capsules to capture information directly from within the small intestine and colon is a promising advance . Based on currently available information, we recommend controlling variation how long does cbd gummies take to have an effect in dietary intake by stabilizing diet, rather than by standardizing diet. This ensures consistency of individual diet during microbiome-focused intervention studies but does not attempt to modify habitual diet. The simplest approach is to ask participants to maintain their normal diet. More complex approaches would assign each subject to a specific constrained diet based on their own recent dietary intake data.
Science articles can cover neuroscience, psychology, AI, robotics, neurology, brain cancer, mental health, machine learning, autism, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, brain research, depression and other topics related to cognitive sciences. Because it’s so essential, the question of how diet affects it naturally arises. There are growing noises that the carnivore diet could harm the human microbiome, but should we listen to them? The microbiome is arguably the most intimate connection that humans have with their external environment, mostly through diet. The microbiome is integral to human physiology, health, and disease.
South Asian infants had higher abundance of several members of lactic acid bacteria contained in the feces, specifically Bifidobacterium, Lactococcus, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus than in the Caucasian infants feces. LAB are responsible for the breakdown of carbohydrates to lactate and acetate . The abundance of the Atopobium cluster of Actinobacteria was also higher in South Asian vs. Caucasian infants. This group of bacteria are saccharolytic and have been observed in abundance in the microbiome of individuals with a fiber-rich diet .
Only a tiny proportion of supplements have been shown to be beneficial. Instead, focus on eating a diverse range of real food to get all your nutrients. Microbes from a lean animal can how old do you have to be to buy cbd gummies in wisconsin reverse obesity in a fat one, but strangely, obesity microbes are harder to transmit than lean ones. Studies have shown that people living with dogs have more microbial diversity.
These are then taxonomically classified using common reference databases and visualized as a phylogenetic tree or represented using bar plots. Exercise-induced alterations of the gut microbiota are likely to have numerous benefits for human health. Exercise training alters the composition and functional capacity of the gut microbiota, independent of diet. The study analyzed the gut microbiome of 612 elderly people from France, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, and the United Kingdom before putting 323 of them on a special diet for a year. As the diversity of bacteria diminishes, “inflamm-aging” occurs, contributing to age-related inflammatory processes that can lead to cancer, neurological disorders and other diseases. “Our findings support the feasibility of changing the habitual diet to modulate the gut microbiota which in turn has the potential to promote healthier aging,” the study authors said.
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Microbiome Medicine: Scientists Harness The Bodys bugs To Treat Asthma, Ms And More
After age 65, the number of microbial species decreases, and the microbial populations become more similar among individuals. You see, whole grains are loaded with prebiotics which are indigestible fibers that support the growth of the good bacteria within your microbiome. While they may not be digestible to you, they’re a great snack for the tiny bacteria caring for you day in and day out. Empty Desert Penn Museum presents “Empty Desert,” documenting formerly nomadic Bedouin people. Their village Al Araqib, in Southern Israel, has been demolished countless times by state authorities and each time rebuilt by the Al Turi families who call it their home. A film discussion will follow, featuring filmmakers Silvia Boarini and Linda Paganelli.
Diet And Microbiome Profiles Co
Correlation of bile acids and microbiota in control and control + BA groups. The microbial community diversity in control, HFD, and control + BA groups shown by Simpson reciprocal index. The trajectories of bile acids and microbiome alteration along 56 days in control and HFD groups. Correlation of bile acids and microbiota in control and HFD groups. The microbial community diversity in control and HFD groups shown by Simpson reciprocal index. XZ, FH, SL, and YZ performed the animal study and collected samples.
In combination, these suggestions would undoubtably assist in promoting general, and individualised or enterotype-based, diet-microbe therapeutic recommendations for the prevention or amelioration of relevant disease states (Fig.2). In contrast, white Caucasians showed higher abundances of members of the Firmicutes from the order Clostridiales, which have been shown to be increased in response to diets rich in animal protein and high in fat . Though also proposed to be chemoprotective, the relationship between luminal butyrate exposure and colorectal cancer in humans has been examined only indirectly in case-control studies . Nevertheless, these findings suggest different metabolic processes and immune stimuli at work within the South Asian and white Caucasian infant gastrointestinal tract, some of which may be explained by their heterogeneous diets. At the functional level, bacterial genes involved in energy, amino acid, and lipid metabolism increased in prevalence during the dry season. In particular, metabolic pathways linked to cellular respiration, methanogenesis, and carbon fixation pathways of prokaryotes became more common, strongly suggesting that both bacterial energy production and cellular activity were stimulated during this time.
Pooled extraction quality control sample was injected every 10 sample injections. Each 1-μL aliquot of the derivatized solution was injected into the instrument. Separation was achieved on a DB-5 MS capillary column (30 m × 250 μm I.D., 0.25 μm film thickness; (5%-phenyl)-methylpolysiloxane bonded and crosslinked) with helium as the carrier gas at a constant flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The temperature of injection, transfer interface, and ion source was set to 270, 260, and 220 °C, respectively. The GC temperature programming was set to 2 min isothermal heating at 80 °C, followed by 10 °C/min oven temperature ramps to 140 °C, 4 °C/min to 210 °C, 10 °C/min to 240 °C, and 25 °C/min to 290 °C, with a final 4.5 min maintenance at 290 °C. Electron impact ionization (–70 eV) at full scan mode (m/z 30–600) was used, with an acquisition rate of 20 spectra/s.
The WTP group also showed greater reduction in body weight and better blood lipid profiles than the control group. In another Chinese study, Zhang et al. performed a hospitalized dietary interventional trial for 30 days of 40 children diagnosed with genetic (diagnosed with Prader-Willi syndrome ) and simple obesity. Some of the children in the PWS group continued on the diet intervention for 60 days. A WTP diet in combination with appropriate amounts of vegetables, fruits and nuts induced significant weight loss and concomitant structural changes of the gut microbiota together with reduction of serum antigen load and alleviation of inflammation . There is an increasing interest in other cancers that may have directly or indirectly been influenced by the gut microbiome.
In addition, a limited diet can also reduce the diversity of microbes in your gut and throw off their balance. When you login first time using a Social Login button, we collect your public account profile information shared by Social Login provider, based on your privacy settings. We also get your email address to automatically create an account for you in our website.
While I’m a huge fan of books in text, there is an unparalleled convenience of an electronic book. Its always there waiting for you – even if you forgot your book at home. Lunchtime is simplified – you’ll have instant access to the Microbiome Diet food list when you need it most. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of turmeric, mainly due to its compound curcumin, is responsible for weight loss.
Beyond that, however, there’s little research on its merits, other than the smattering of studies we discussed above. At the moment, the best “evidence” that we have for the effectiveness of the carnivore diet and its safety long-term are the self experimenters. So far, it seems like people like Amber O’Hearne, Jordan Peterson, and Mikayla Peterson are doing well.
The increase in these cellulolytic/fibrolytic taxa and the high versatility of the secondary fermenters likely allow geladas to optimally extract nutrients from grasses eaten during wet periods. Adaptive shifts in gut microbiome composition are one route by which animals adapt to seasonal changes in food availability and diet. However, outside of dietary shifts, other potential environmental drivers of gut microbial composition have rarely been investigated, particularly in organisms living in their natural environments. Adult patients aged 18–65 years fulfilling the Rome III criteria for IBS were prospectively included at a secondary/tertiary care outpatient clinic . The diagnosis was based on a typical clinical presentation and additional investigations, if considered necessary by the gastroenterologist .
Assessing Microbial Functioning
Evidence suggests that a healthy and diverse microbiome is beneficial to human health. The microbiome diet could support this by encouraging people to eat plant-based foods. A review in 2019 noted, more specifically, that a plant-based diet may promote a healthy diversity of gut flora.
Reduced dietary fiber habits and consistently lower SCFA production were also observed in the adenoma group . The inflammatory bowel diseases —Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis —are two diseases characterised by chronic relapsing inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. They represent an increasing public health concern and an aetiological enigma due to unknown causal factors. Despite suggested differences in pathology, both diseases are believed to share a common aetiology. The strongest IBD risk factor identified to date is a family history of IBD . The current notion on the pathogenesis of IBD is that genetically susceptible individuals develop intolerance to dysregulated gut microflora and chronic inflammation develops as a result of environmental triggers .
Despite the fact that micronutrient deficiency may theoretically influence the immune system and predispose one to the onset and development of IBD, more research is needed to understand optimal micronutrient levels and specific therapeutic implications . Beyond micronutrients, specific food compounds such as green tea or Echinacea have also been suggested to reduce or enhance immune stimulation and play a role in IBD prevention. Consumption of high saturated and trans fat diets is thought to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease through upregulation of blood total- and LDL-cholesterol . On the other hand health-promoting fats, such as mono and polyunsaturated fats, are crucial in alleviating risk of chronic disease. The typical Western diet is both high in saturated and trans fats while low in mono and polyunsaturated fats, therefore predisposing regular consumers to many health problems [45–47]. Several human studies have suggested that a high-fat diet increases total anaerobic microflora and counts of Bacteroides .
The researchers observed that that as animals’ diets were shifted from a standard diet towards stricter carbohydrate restriction, their microbes also began shifting, correlated with a gradual rise in ketone bodies. The way our current healthcare system operates tends to focus on the management of symptoms of chronic disease, and not for prevention or cures. The researchers of our Viome Health Science team have successfully developed over 30 predictive models for Glycemic response, Obesity, Diabetes, Depression, IBS, and Oral Cancer, which represent over 50% of chronic diseases.
Fecal sampling location within a single stool sample may affect the abundance of specific microbes, reflecting the diverse microbial communities residing in small niches throughout the gastrointestinal tract . Collection of the entire bowel movement presents significant logistical challenges including the need for study participants to collect and transport large sample volumes. When collecting whole stool samples researchers should work closely with participants to agree upon collection times.
Some experts think that microbiome changes from antibiotic use and a shift in diet may be part of the reason for that. Autism spectrum disorder is a group of neurodevelopmental conditions that begins in early life and is characterised by impaired social communication and interactions as well as stereotyped, repetitive behavior, the authors explained. Prevalence of the condition in children and adolescents has been CBD Isolate Gummies vs. Full Spectrum Gummies estimated at 0.36% in Asia, and 1.85% in western countries, and the incidence of ASD in China has also increased from 2.8 per 10,000 in 2000, to 63 per 10,000 in 2015, the team continued. The intestinal barrier mechanism has a dual role to play – it protects against the invasion of microorganisms and absorption of bacterial toxins, but also enables the absorption of essential products, electrolytes and nutrients.
Pylori, a strain of bacteria whose overgrowth increases the risk of gastritis and peptic ulcers. Additionally, polyphenols found in green and black tea, including epigallocatechin gallate, catechin, and gallocatechin, may inhibit strains such as E. Pylori, as well as Staphylococcus aureus, which is commonly known for resulting in hospital- and community-acquired infections. Probiotics have been shown to interact with the human gut microbiome. The germ-free murine facility allows lab members to deconstruct a complex system and mechanistically address the role of gut bacteria in maintaining health and causing disease. Byrdie has published someone’s experience with the gut microbiome diet, to find out how well it really works.
The simplest, least expensive, and most common method is 16S rRNA gene sequencing , which sequences a small portion of the highly conserved prokaryotic 16S ribosomal RNA gene . This method can provide taxonomic resolution to the genus level , but it does not measure the biochemical functions of the microorganisms or distinguish living from dead organisms. In addition, traditional 16S rRNA sequencing excludes some bacteria, most archaea, and all eukaryotic organisms and viruses , resulting in a limited view of the gut microbiome ecosystem. Our study provided a correlative relationship between BAs and the HFD-induced alteration of gut microbiota. Dietary intervention and FXR activation has been confirmed to play an important role in the treatment of obesity via a decrease in BA secretion and/or synthesis. Future studies will be needed to establish similar relationships between changes in both BA concentrations and composition and changes in the gut microbiota in human obese versus normal weight phenotypes.
This first phase lasts 21 days and aims to remove unhealthy bacteria from your gut and replace stomach acids and digestive enzymes. There is reasonable evidence that correcting gut flora imbalances by taking probiotics with Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria can reduce visceral pain and gut inflammation in IBD. Synbiotics refers to food ingredients or dietary supplements combining probiotics and prebiotics in a form of synergism. Gut microbiome composition depends on the geographic origin of populations. Using a commercial mock community, Viomega shows 100% accuracy at the species level.
Our microbiome plays a starring role in creating healthy fat genes by eating specific types of fiber called prebiotics that create short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate, which helps reduce our genetic predisposition to weight gain. The studies discussed provide irrefutable evidence from around the world that the human microbiome can be modified by dietary change in children and adults. Whilst the associations between specific dietary components and health and disease are strong, a lot more work on causality is needed before specific microbes, or groups of microbes, can be used therapeutically. The evidence for a balanced diet and balanced microbiota being able to prevent westernized diseases and extend good quality lifespan is, however, compelling2. Your gut microbiome is a vast community of trillions of bacteria and fungi that inhabit every nook and cranny of your gastrointestinal tract, and have a major influence on your metabolism, body weight, propensity to illness, immune system, appetite and mood. These microbes mostly live in your lower intestine and outnumber all the other cells in your body put together.
The microbiome has a tremendous influence on the health and disease susceptibility of humans. Although genetics plays some part in determining the diversity of the microbiome, diet has the largest influence; therefore, humans can make certain lifestyle choices that have been proven to increase the diversity and stability of their microbiome. Probiotics, or particular strains of bacteria that are ingested in order to alter the gut microbiome, have been studied to help PD symptoms. A number of small studies suggest that probiotics may improve constipation in people with PD, which is a common problem for many people with the disease.
Diet, The Gut Microbiome And Heart Failure
It reduces the load of carbohydrates that must be digested by the horse’s enzymes. Finally, these active bacteria release growth factors into the intestinal fluid, encouraging the further growth and proliferation of beneficial bacteria. These are a group of conditions that cause your intestines to become inflamed. The way your gut microbes affect the cells that line your intestines may play a role in these diseases. Some people with Crohn’s disease have a gene glitch that lets gut bacteria enter the intestine’s walls.
CommonThe small intestine contains a trace amount of microorganisms due to the proximity and influence of the stomach. Gram-positive cocci and rod-shaped bacteria are the predominant microorganisms found in the small intestine. However, in the distal portion of the small intestine alkaline conditions support gram-negative bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae. The bacterial flora of the small intestine aid in a wide range of intestinal functions. The bacterial flora provide regulatory signals that enable the development and utility of the gut. Overgrowth of bacteria in the small intestine can lead to intestinal failure.
Mean ecological similarity of a given individual douc’s microbiome to all wild douc microbiomes, plotted against that individual’s estimated dietary fiber content ; same, but showing mean ecological similarity to humans . Doucs consuming more fiber more closely resemble wild doucs in their microbiome; doucs consuming less fiber more closely resemble humans. Also shown is the primary axis of correlation of chloroplast relative abundance, a proxy measurement Delta 8 for dietary raw plant content, with sample positions. Fraction of whole-genome shotgun data aligning at 97% identity to known plant genomes for 14 captive individuals and 16 wild individuals . Wild individuals have a high fraction of plant DNA in their stool; captive individuals have almost none, with the exception of a single outlier individual who was recently rescued from the wild for treatment of electrical burns (also an outlier in Fig. 1).
That said, doctors have cautioned parents against attempting to seed babies born by caesarean section with vaginal bacteria. Other key roles of our microbes include programming the immune system, providing nutrients for our cells and preventing colonisation by harmful bacteria and viruses. Monitoring the gut microbiome can be used as an early detection of Crohn’s disease and can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of various treatments. Alterations in the gut microbiome can have a direct effect on colon cancer development. In ketogenic diets, carbohydrate consumption is dramatically reduced in order to force the body to alter its metabolism to using fat molecules, rather than carbohydrates, as its primary energy source – producing ketone bodies as a byproduct. The food babies eat also feeds their microbes, and different microbes grow best on different types of food.
They also experienced a growth of good bacteria previously found to lower the risk of frailty, boost brain activity, and improve memory. Researchers also found that the participants’ nationality or microbiome composition at the start of the study had no influence on the results. While first metagenome-assembled genomes were reconstructed from environmental samples, in recent years, several thousands of bacterial genomes were binned without culturing the organisms behind. For example, 154,723 microbial genomes of the global human microbiome were recently reconstructed from 9,428 metagenomes.
The American section discusses the role of the microbiome in the swelling population of patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes, and examines the effects of race, ethnicity, geography and climate on microbial diversity and metabolism. The studies from Europe and Asia extoll the benefits of whole foods and plant-based diets. Further studies are needed to determine how these changes in microbiota composition and metabolism can improve our health and be used to prevent and treat disease. An increasing body of evidence suggests that our gut microbiome has a profound impact on our health. In the past decade, gut microorganisms have been shown to play a role in a wide range of human diseases, including obesity, psoriasis, autism, and mood disorders [133–136].
For observational studies where dietary intake is considered as a confounder for the microbiome outcome of interest, the decision to collect dietary data is driven by different factors than when dietary intake is the exposure of interest. We do not think that all microbiome studies need to collect dietary data. In many well-designed microbiome studies it may not be necessary to collect dietary data and the decision to collect dietary data should be weighed carefully with the researchers’ hypotheses and planned analyses. In observational studies where diet will be a clear confounder that cannot be controlled for through other study design parameters, investigators should collect detailed information about diet.
However, an important obstacle to identifying the role of environmental factors in IBD is a lack of methodological standardisation among studies . While host genetics and lifestyle influence the gut microbiome, we know that diet is the major factor shaping it. Investigators in this study were interested in how seasonality affects the gut microbiome among Canadian Inuit people, assuming that variations in food sources available during different seasons would contribute to large shifts in gut microbiome composition . A diverse microbiome reduces the risk of some diseases, and probiotics can improve the symptoms of conditions, such as IBS and eczema. In a clinical trial, 36 healthy adults were randomly assigned to a 10-week diet that included either fermented or high-fiber foods. The two diets resulted in different effects on the gut microbiome and the immune system.
Together, they function as an extra organ in your body and play a huge role in your health. This article serves as a guide to the gut microbiome and explains why it’s so important for your health. A study published in the Journal of Nutrition found mangoes actually prevented the loss of good gut bacteria. And luckily for you, mangoes are delicious and effective whether they are fresh, dried, or frozen. Has someone ever told you to eat a banana to calm your upset stomach?